Vitamin A Involved in normal eyesight; immune system response; cell differentiation; embryonic development; and healthy epithelial tissue, the tissue that lines the body's external and internal surfaces.4,5
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Plays a major role in the conversion of protein, carbohydrate and fat into energy production. Also plays a role in detoxification, heart function, and the cells of the nervous system.1,2
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Essential for cellular energy production. Also supports hormone production, neurotransmitter function, healthy eyes and skin and the production of red blood cells.1,2
Vitamin B6 Important in protein synthesis and the manufacture of hormones, red blood cells and enzymes. Plays a role in hormone regulation, brain function, skin health and is crucial for a healthy immune system.1,2,4
Vitamin B12 Supports the health of the nervous system and the development of red blood cells. Aids in the replication of the genetic code within each cell, and plays a role in the processing of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the body.1,4
Vitamin C An important antioxidant, which helps protect cells against damage caused by free radicals. Supports the body's immune system. Essential for the formation and maintenance of collagen, a protein that forms the basis for connective tissue. Plays a role in healthy gums, skin and vision.1,2,4
Vitamin D3 Functions as a pro-hormone by regulating the absorption and use of calcium and phosphorous. Aids in the formation of normal bones and teeth. Also plays a role in healthy immune function.1,2,4
Vitamin E An important antioxidant. Protects the health and function of the nervous system and supports healthy skin.1,2,5
Vitamin K1 Essential for normal blood clotting. Also plays a role in bone formation and the regulation of blood calcium levels.
Beta-Carotene and Mixed Carotenoids* Used in the body to form Vitamin A. Supports antioxidant activity in the body. 4
Betaine Plays a role as a lipotropic nutrient and a methyl donor. Also plays a role in homocysteine metabolism.
Bioflavonoid Complex** Helps strengthen the integrity of blood vessel walls (capillaries).2,4
Biotin Supports energy metabolism and healthy skin, hair and mucous membranes.2,4
Calcium Essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. Helps maintain cell membranes, connective tissue and normal blood pressure. Also aids in blood clotting.1,4
Choline Plays a role as a lipotropic nutrient by aiding in the production and transportation of fats from the liver. Supports normal nerve and brain function.1
Chromium Functions in the uptake of blood sugar (glucose) into the cells and the regulation of blood sugar levels.4
Copper Plays a role in the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system, the skeletal system and red blood cells. Plays a role in the absorption and release of iron, and is involved in the production of collagen, elastin and melanin. Also aids in the conversion of nutrients and energy.2,4
Folic acid Regulates cell division and the transfer of inherited traits from one cell to another. Supports the health of gums, red blood cells, skin, the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.1,4
Inositol A component of cell membranes and functions in nerve transmission and the regulation of certain enzymes. Lipotropic nutrient involved in fat metabolism.4
Iodine A component of the thyroid hormones which regulate metabolism, growth, reproduction, nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, the growth of skin and hair and the use of oxygen by cells.4
Iron Acts as the oxygen-carrying component of the blood and therefore determines how much oxygen reaches body tissues, including the brain, muscles, heart and liver. Also supports the immune system.1,4
Magnesium Plays an important role in healthy heart function, in the conversion of carbohydrates, protein, and fats to energy, the manufacture of proteins and the synthesis of the genetic material within each cell. Also supports muscle relaxation and contraction and nerve transmission.2,4
Manganese Plays a role in the formation of connective tissue and bone. Supports healthy brain function and reproduction. Plays a role in energy production and is necessary for normal glucose metabolism.2,4
Molybdenum Is required for the activity of several enzymes, is important in the mobilization of iron from storage and is necessary for normal growth and development.2,4
Niacin Plays an important role in the release of energy from carbohydrates. Aids in the breakdown of protein and fats, in the synthesis of fats and certain hormones and in the formation of red blood cells.4
PABA Plays a role in B vitamin metabolism, as an enzyme cofactor.3
Pantothenic Acid Is converted to a substance called coenzyme A, an important catalyst in the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates and protein for energy. Plays a role in the production of fats, cholesterol, bile, vitamin D, red blood cells, adrenal gland hormones and neurotransmitters.4
Phosphorus Essential for healthy bones and teeth. Also a component of all soft tissues and cell membranes. Helps maintain the pH balance in the blood and helps activate the B vitamins. 2,4
Potassium Plays an important role in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve conduction, regulation of the heartbeat, production of energy and the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.2,4
Selenium Plays an important role as a component of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase.2,4
Vanadium May support healthy blood glucose metabolism.2
Zinc Is a component of numerous enzymes and plays a role in protein synthesis, blood sugar balance, wound healing and brain function. Also important in the maintenance of healthy skin, the immune system, nervous, digestive and reproductive systems, the genetic code and normal blood levels of vitamin A.1,4
* Alpha-Carotene, Cryptoxanthin, Zeaxanthin, Lutein, etc.
** Quercetin, etc.
1. Crayhon R. Robert Crayhon's Nutrition Made Simple. New York: M. Evans & Co., 1994.
2. Hendler SS. The Doctor's Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia. New York: Fireside, 1990.
3. Linder MC. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism. 2nd ed. Norwalk, CN: Appleton & Lange, 1991.
4. Somer E. The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. 2nd ed. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
5. Ziegler EE. Filer I.J. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Wash DC: ILSI Press, 1996.